It is said that skin is the mirror of our inner body. The majority of genes that control pigmentation have now been identified, and we can trace the progression of skin color across the world—and throughout history! There are various factors affecting skin color, in which melanin is dominant factor determining skin color. This is not only the color in your hair but also the color in your eyes and even in your skin. Special skin cells called melanocytes make melanin. Everyone has the same number of melanocytes, but some people make more melanin than others. Melanin is a pigment that produces different colors in skin and hair. It seems that this group intermingled with a group of farmers from the Near East who had genes for white skin. Even in our subconscious, we associate certain colors with certain conditions. This can happen even with an exposure of a few hours in sunlight. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is a skin condition that is acquired after a skin disease like skin allergy, skin infections like lichens planus infection, lupus erythematosus, and atopic dermatitis. When it comes to skin color, various ethnic groups have various skin shades, each of them rich and vibrant. Melanin is the pigment that determines skin colour as well as hair and eye colour. Melanin and melanocytes have other functions as well, though. This is called blotchy pigmentation due to sun damage. Melanocyte pumping out melanin particles (Photo Credit: designua / Fotolia). Clumps of melanocytes in fair-skinned people often appear as freckles. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. One should address these immediately in order to avoid spreading of the pigmentation. Treatments to sunspots include topical lotions and gels along with dermabrasion, microdermabrasion, and laser therapy for melanin removal. On the off chance that your melanocytes produce a ton of melanin, you're probably going to have more obscure skin, hair, and eyes Colors are the soul of our life. People around the world have skin color varying from pale to dark. Sunspots make a person look older, and spoils the looks of a person. Over the years, we have adapted to our respective climates and have developed various skin colors. Why Are There Stones Alongside Railway Tracks? Of these, melanin is the most powerful. Melanocytes come in two subtypes called pheomelanin and eumelanin. John Staughton is a traveling writer, editor, publisher and photographer who earned his English and Integrative Biology degrees from the University of Illinois. According to a 2008 report by Public Radio International, African Americans are twice as likely to develop vitamin D deficiency than whites. There are three types of melanin: Eumelanin, pheomelanin, and neuromelanin each with its own job. So, our skin color is just a matter of adaptation. Melanin also plays a role in whether or not a person to able to tan. People tan because sunlight causes the skin to produce more melanin and darken. Your natural skin pigmentation is predetermined to keep you healthy and overexposure to sun can damage your skin instead of giving you any miraculous powers. It adds beauty and meaning to our lives – The vibrant yellows of dandelion, the lush greens of the forest, and the glorious orange of sunset. In northern Europe or Scandinavia, where sunlight is limited for many parts of the year, people’s skin is extremely pale, almost translucent, to ensure that when they are exposed to that precious sunlight, their skin is able to make enough vitamin D to keep the body healthy! These can result in general darkening of the skin or small areas with spots. The genes that determine skin color have two alleles each and are found on different chromosomes. However, the core reason for the development of dark skin is contentious. The expression of pigment is controlled by six main genes in the body, and this genetic makeup is largely determined by your parents and the generations that came before them. Why Must You Remove All Metal Objects Before an MRI Scan? We can see high temperatures and harsh sunlight even in the months of September and October. Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition that arises in the form of dark spots of melanin pigment. Because a person with darker skin -- that is, high melanin concentrations in the skin -- has a limited capacity obtain vitamin D from sun exposure, darker-skinned people are at a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than are lighter-skinned individuals. Melanin is a pigment found in your skin and hair cells that gives each its color. What Is The Connection Between Hormones And Emotions? Some people naturally produce less melanin, which means less pigment and lighter skin. One hypothesis is that strong UV exposure results in cell mutation, increasing the risk of cancer. He is the co-founder of a literary journal, Sheriff Nottingham, and the Content Director for Stain’d Arts, an arts nonprofit based in Denver. For this reason, we see darker-skinned people most commonly near the Equator, where sunlight is in abundance throughout the year; this extends beyond Africa to Asia, South America, and the Middle East! Melanocytes come in two subtypes called pheomelanin and eumelanin. Melanin is synthesized by cells in the skin and hair follicles called melanocytes. Melanin's role is to protect DNA in body cells from sun damage. There seem to be many benefits of melanin pigment; however, this does not mean that you go out and stay in the sun all day to get this miracle pigment. There are two types of melanin, eumelanin which gives skin a brown colour (tan) and pheomelanin which gives skin a red colour (burn). Melanin is the pigment that produces the wide variation seen in skin and hair color in humans. The chart to the left illustrates the two primary biochemical dynamics which serve as oppositional selective forces upon the color of human skin; which itself is just a reflection of melanin … We consider the human race that is spread across the globe as members of a single species, Homo sapiens, but we certainly dont all look the same. … Levels of melanin depend on race and amount of sunlight exposure. Gels, lotions, and liquid topical medications like hydroquinone, and corticosteroids for skin lightening are basic treatment options. Hyperpigmentation – Melanin pigment Spots. Circle Of Willis: Anatomy, Diagram And Functions. Melanin makes the skin darker, protects the skin from UV damage, and it also increases sensitivity to heat. Folate is crucial for many functions of our body and UVR rays can degrade it. We consider the human race spread across the globe as members of a single species, Homo sapiens, but we certainly don’t all look the same. When those anomalies result in higher survivability, they are passed on to one’s children. So, the body produces more melanin in skin so that the effects of UV rays like stripping the body of folic acid and causing certain cancers are prevented. It is produced in the cells called melanocytes. Melanin is literally what gives you color. Patches can also form on the neck and forearms. Pheomelanin gives skin a yellow to red color and eumelanin gives the skin a dark brown to black color. By conferring color to skin, melanin protects skin from damaging UV rays. How Does A Pencil Work? It provides protection against disease and injury. Hyperpigmentation can occur in three forms: Melasma is a common skin condition. Whether you have dark skin or light skin depends on the amount and type of melanin produced in your skin. There are 2 kinds of melanin: The world is full of colors and myriad hues. Full Body Laser Hair Removal Cost in India, Prevents folate depletion and aids reproduction, Prevents eye diseases in people with brown & black colored eyes. Skin color differences are primarily due to melanin, produced by cells called melanocytes. Pigmentation means coloring. What Would Happen If You Shot A Bullet On A Train? How Do We Get Wool From Sheep And How It Is Converted Into Clothes. Differences in melanin production between different skin colors. In 2015, research compared the DNA from 8,000-year-old Europeans to current Europeans and found results that show a very different story. Any change in the skin pigmentation is a cause of concern as it can alter the way you look and is an indicator of an underlying condition. It is a result of genetics and exposure to sun. Melanin can also affect organs other than skin, such as your eyes. People can temporarily change the color of their skin by tanning (or getting sunburnt), which essentially stimulates the production of melanin and inflames the area to protect against adverse UV exposure. This is because of the fact that the skin contains a pigment called melanin. Melanocytes are sensitive to sunlight and when they are subjected to sunlight, they produce melanin pigment. Humans were dark-skinned for the vast majority of their history. Interestingly enough, it wasn’t until less than 100,000 years ago that skin color began to change. So, people with paler shades of skin color have more of pheomelanin and darker complexion skin color comes with eumelanin. These patches do not cause any itching or pain. It is produced by a specialized group of cells called melanocytes. However, if we all belong to the same species, shouldn’t our basic skin color be the same? However, exposing oneself to harsh sunlight has its demerits. 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