The collection of Spanish colonial art presents the artistic achievements of Latin America, from Columbus’s first encounter with the people of the Caribbean through the region’s independence movements and the subsequent formation of nation states. The Spanish Friars introduced Western paintings to the artisans who learned to copy two dimensional forms from... 2. The European population in the archipelago steadily grew although native Filipinos remained the majority. Manuel Rojo del Río y VieyraArchbishop of Manilla and Governor - General of the Philippines. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic Churches due to the influence of Catholicism. The conquistador miguel lopez de legazpi founded the first spanish settlement in cebu in 1565 and later established manila as the capital of the spanish east indies in 1571. Freemasonry was important during the time of the Philippine Revolution. [citation needed] All executive power of the local government stemmed from him and as regal patron, he had the authority to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. The Philippines already have an indigenous art traditions that is unique and rich. The small increase of Peninsulares from the Iberian Peninsula threatened the secularization of the Philippine churches. This publication and attached DVD (interviews by Sally Gutierrez) were made possible by Spain's Ministerio de Cultura, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperacion, SEACEX and Casa Asia. 70's to Contemporary. With the loss of its naval forces and of control of Manila Bay, Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines. In addition, this is where the sentiment heard as, "Mi Barrio", first came from. In 1849, the Governor sent out an order that all families were to choose a new last name from a list of Spanish last names (in order to create a more organized system of keeping track of people). Become a Member of the Spanish Colonial Arts Society today. ... Intramuros was the capital of the new Spanish colony of the "Felipinas" islands and was a key point on the trade route between Asia and America (Manila and Acapulco) that by means of galleons, realized the dream of Columbus that Spain could reach the West Indies. Ecclesiastical governor of the islands’ suffragan dioceses, headed by bishops. With the completion of the Philippine referendum of 1599, Spain could be said to have established legitimate sovereignty over the Philippines.[18]. Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron), recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription (quinto), postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. On March 22, 1897, the convention established the Tejeros Revolutionary Government. [1] Philip became King of Spain on January 16, 1556, when his father, Charles I of Spain (who also reigned as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), abdicated the Spanish throne. INTRAMUROS. Their names are survived by prominent families in contemporary Philippine society such as Duremdes, Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan, Liwanag, Mallillin, Pangilinan, Panganiban, Balderas, Zabarte and Agbayani, Apalisok, Aguinaldo to name a few. Pedro Paterno mediated between the two sides for the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. During Spain's 333 year rule in the Philippines, the settlers had to fight off the Chinese pirates (who lay siege to Manila, the most famous of which was Limahong in 1573), Dutch forces, Portuguese forces, and indigenous revolts. Manilawas made the capital of the Philippines in 1… During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic Churches due to the influence of Catholicism. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. Inscribed on Verso: El Illmo (illustrious) Sr. .D. "Affairs in Filipinas, 1644–47", in, History of the Philippines (900–1565) § Spanish explorations (1521–1565), Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas, History of Spanish slavery in the Philippines, History of the Philippines (Pre-Colonial Era 900–1521), History of the Philippines (American Era 1898–1946), History of the Philippines (Third Republic 1946–65), History of the Philippines (Marcos Era 1965–86), History of the Philippines (Contemporary Era 1986–present), List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines, "Living in the Philippines: Living, Retiring, Travelling and Doing Business", "SECOND BOOK OF THE SECOND PART OF THE CONQUESTS OF THE FILIPINAS ISLANDS, AND CHRONICLE OF THE RELIGIOUS OF OUR FATHER, ST. AUGUSTINE", Quinze Ans de Voyage Autor de Monde Vol. SPANISH COLONIAL ART. Pre Spanish Colonial Art in the Philippines 150205070004 Conversion Gate01 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. On August 13, 1898, during the Battle of Manila (1898), Americans took control of the city. in 1565 between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico, then in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Alcaldes mayores and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province, and even vice-regal patron. Philippines art and architecture under Spanish Colonial Rule (1565–1898) The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution and Spanish–American War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonialization of the Philippines. Visual arts in Pre-Spanish Colonial Period. II ( 1840), Institute for Research of Iloilo Official Website, https://books.google.com/books?id=kbWv-pZy5H0C&pg=PA1, "Rostros de piedra; biografías de un mundo perdido", https://www.studymode.com/essays/Polo-y-Servicio-1880531.html, "11. The Dutch had twelve major vessels. Filipinos refer to their country’s Spanish colonial experience as “300 years in a ... Spanish friars introduced the art of ... that rose to challenge Spanish rule over the Philippines. Government 2. We appreciate your support! Manila was made the capital of the Philippines in 1571. When the spaniards arrived in the philippines in 1521 the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the catholic faith through beautiful images. The unpacified military zones (corregimiento), such as Mariveles and Mindoro, were headed by the corregidores. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish. Email Us. nineteenth century Spanish Philippines (1820-1896) Stéphanie Marie R. Coo To cite this version: Stéphanie Marie R. Coo. In the 1570s, the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent by Japanese pirates, but peaceful trading relations were established between the Philippines and Japan by 1590. The Western World was quickly changing and sought less political control from the Roman Catholic Church. They allied themselves with Spanish liberals, notably Spanish senator Miguel Morayta Sagrario, and founded the newspaper La Solidaridad. Every barangay was further divided into "barrios", and the barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabeza de barangay). On April 25, 1898, the Spanish–American War began. To this end, the Tejeros Convention was convened, where Aguinaldo was elected president of the new insurgent government. NNT: 2014NICE2028. Aside from houses, Mother Spain also bestowed its influence on the architecture of churches, the symbolism of its major endowment in the Philippines, Catholicism. The Spanish ships were not badly damaged and casualties were low. This contributions brought such good things in the Filipinos because this things helped us to improved our culture and ourselves. Many Filipinos prospered. During most of the Spanish colonial period the Philippine colonial economy depended on the Galleon Trade which was inaugurated[by whom?] Spanish colonial architecture reflects Filipino identity mostly through the Religious Architecture. [35], The early success at Manila did not enable the British to control the Philippines. His novels were considered[by whom?] In many areas, the Spanish left indigenous groups to administer their own affairs but under Spanish overlordship. Apr 8, 2017 - Information and photos about the Spanish military and government forces in the Philippine Islands during their 400 years of colonial rule. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later reduced to 15 days. [40] Andrés Bonifacio called for a general offensive on Manila[41] and was defeated in battle at the town of San Juan del Monte. Composed of leading men in local and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture and established an academy of design. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old, Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo, Elected by the residents of the municipio, Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families, Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period. During the early Spanish colonial period art was mostly religious and not very good to be honest. In 1573 Japan was expanding its trade to northern Luzon and in [5] 1580 the Japanese lord Tay Fusa established the independent Wokou Tay Fusa lordship in Cagayan. [24] However, the trade did result in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as tomatoes, avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, and horses. [43][failed verification] Emilio Aguinaldo and the Katipuneros of Cavite were the most successful of the rebels[44] and they controlled most of their province by September–October. Click Here TO LEARN HOW. Sculpture Of … Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown.[38]. [32][33][34], There was also an unsuccessful attack on Zamboanga in 1648. That same year, the existence of the Katipunan was discovered by the colonial authorities. [9] At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita[10] and at Cavite[11] where they were stationed as sentries. Manunggul Jar from Palawan (890–710 BC) Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ’s life and passion. Pre spanish-colonial-art-in-the-philippines. When the spaniards arrived in the philippines in 1521 the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the catholic faith through beautiful images. [15] Interactions between indigenous Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus Latin-Americans eventually caused the formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish.They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living. The Spanish Colonial period in the Indies extends from 1492 to 1898, when the last colonies - Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines - attained their independence. History The oldest human fossil found in the Philippines is the skull cap of a “Stone- age Filipino”, about 22,000 years old. PHILIPPINE ART HISTORY PHILIPPINE ART PERIOD TIMELINE Pre-Colonial Art Period Spanish Colonial Art Period American Colonial Art Period Post War Colonial Art Period Contemporary Art Period THE OBJECTIVES OF THE TIMELINE STUDY Identify the development of the Philippine art aesthetics from its most primal to its contemporary form. Appointed dignitaries or the staff of a diocese, if the captain general failed to do so, Functioned as the Supreme Court and advised the Captain General, Initially composed of four judges (oidores), an attorney-general (fiscal), and a constable, with attached advocates for the accused, a defender of the naturales (“natives”), and other minor officials; the number of oidores and fiscales would be increased after, Took charge of government upon the death of the governor (mayor) up to the arrival of his successor, Exercised executive and judiciary powers in the province, Until the mid-19th century, he had the privilege to engage in trade (indulto de comercio), which occasioned many abuses against the local population, No provision was made restricting the alcalde mayor to engage in trade, If a provincia was large, the alcalde mayor had a corregidor to administer over, Provincial council which assisted the alcalde mayor, Composed of a public prosecutor, finance administrator, treasurer, vicars forane, provincial doctor, and four principles of the capital elected by the capitanes municipales of the province, Administered over a pueblo, assisted by other pueblo officials, Position was initially restricted to the local married men of the elite (principalia), By 1768, the position became elective. [3], King Philip II of Spain, whose name has remained attached to the islands, ordered and oversaw the conquest and colonization of the Philippines. What is Spanish colonial art? After Rajah Patis of Cebu, some indigenous Filipino nobles resisted Spanish rule. Mining 5. On February 4, 1899, the Philippine–American War began with the Battle of Manila (1899) between American forces and the nascent Philippine Republic. It may be said that joining masonry was one activity that both the reformists and the Katipuneros shared. Governor-General Basco had opened the Philippines to this trade. The Asian goods, including silk, porcelain, spices, lacquerware and textile products, were then sent to Acapulco and from there to other parts of New Spain, Peru and Europe. Laktaw established on January 6, 1892, the Nilad, the first Masonic lodge in the Philippines. On January 23, 1899, Aguinaldo established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos. Philippines art-in-spanish-time (1) 1. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands, justice, finance and the municipal police. On June 6, 1647, Dutch vessels were sighted near Mariveles Island. Filipino forces had liberated much of the country from the Spanish. Residential areas lay around the plaza. On the national level or social class, the King of Spain, via his Council of the Indies (Consejo de las Indias), governed through his representative in the Philippines, the Governor-General of the Philippines (Gobernador y Capitán General). Nov 21, 2020 - Explore Alfredo Claros's board "Philippines Colonial Architecture", followed by 960 people on Pinterest. SPANISH COLONIAL ART PERIOD (1521-1898) Introduced formal Painting, sculpture and architecture, which was inspired by the byzantine, Gothic, Baroque and Rococo, art styles. [27], The first vessel of the Royal Philippine Company to set sail was the "Nuestra Señora de los Placeres" commanded by the captain Juan Antonio Zabaleta. He was arrested just a few days after founding the league. On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila Bay, the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy, led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia, decisively defeated the Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from potential invasions of outside powers such as the Dutch, British and Chinese. By an ancillary secret convention, Spain was committed to making preparations for war against Britain. [7] With time, Cebu's importance diminished as power shifted north to Luzon. 1. The Spanish garrison on the island was small, but survived a Dutch bombardment. Their annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1600 after 1847. On June 12, the armada attacked the Spanish port of Cavite. They defended their territories with trenches designed by Edilberto Evangelista. The tension between the Insulares and Peninsulares erupted into the failed revolts of Novales and the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 which resulted to the deportation of prominent Filipino nationalists to the Marianas and Europe who would continue the fight for liberty through the Propaganda Movement. Thus, the Philippines earned its income through the trade of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon. COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES (2). American Occupation. After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo. When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, to tell the stories of Christ's life and passion. His expedition also named Luzon Nueva Castilla (New Castile). On May 19, Emilio Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines aboard a U.S. Navy ship and on May 24 took command of Filipino forces. The Dutch had formed an alliance with an anti-Spanish king, Salicala. In 1891, Del Pilar sent Laktaw to the Philippines to establish a Masonic lodge. been subjected under Spanish colonial rule for 333 years. Spanish counterattacks drove him back and he retreated to the mountains of Balara and Morong and from there engaged in guerrilla warfare. Moros from western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago also raided the coastal Christian areas of Luzon and the Visayas. "islanders"). This gradually resulted in the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815. The decree was published in Manila on August 5, 1598. There he became embroiled in discussions whether to replace the Katipunan with an insurgent government of the Cavite rebels' design. On that date, Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared a state of war in these provinces and placed them under martial law. The arrival of Spanish conquerors introduced the Antillean style of architecture. This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 05:53. Position was made elective in 1786; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay. [16] Japan's kampaku (regent), Toyotomi Hideyoshi, demanded unsuccessfully on several occasions that the Philippines submit to Japan's suzerainty. He previously served as the curator of Spanish colonial art at the Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros in Venezuela, and as the associate curator of Latin American art at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. However, some of those were hung or they were enslaved. 95 records . In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim defenders[12] There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo,[13] Negros[14] and Vigan. In state affairs, the Criollos, known locally as Insulares (lit. To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient Castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines: the Residencia, dating back to the 5th century, and the Visita, which differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within the official's term, without any previous notice. Known as the First, Second and Third Battles of Playa Honda. [22] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. France, suffering a series of setbacks, successfully negotiated a treaty with Spain known as the "Compact Famille" which was signed on August 15, 1761. Manila became a major center of trade in Asia between the 17th and 18th centuries. From the technologies used in crafting ritual paraphernalia developed the various visual art forms which characterized the Spanish colonial period: sculpture, painting, printmaking, furniture, fine metalwork, metal casting, textile arts, and fiesta decor. [42], Many of the educated ilustrado class such as Antonio Luna and Apolinario Mabini did not initially favor an armed revolution. Visitas could be specific or general. Discovered by Dr. Robert B. Pre-Colonial Philippines D. Economic Life 1. With this treaty, Spanish rule in the Philippines formally ended. [citation needed]. On November 19 or 20, 1564, a Spanish expedition of 500 men led by Miguel López de Legazpi departed Barra de Navidad, in present-day Mexico. In 1892, Radical members of the La Liga Filipina, which included Bonifacio and Deodato Arellano, founded the Kataastaasan Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK), called simply the Katipunan, which had the objective of the Philippines seceding from the Spanish Empire. At the time, Great Britain and France were at war, in what was later called the Seven Years' War. [citation needed] On June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence declaring independence from Spain. On March 10, 1785, King Charles III of Spain confirmed the establishment of the Royal Philippine Company with a 25-year charter. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo, a chinese mestizo,[21] and who was the Gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). A short time later, the Solidaridad grew. This could be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. It was also credited to the carabao ban of 1782, the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first paper mill in the Philippines in 1825. The expedition arrived in Cebu on February 13, 1565, and annexed it with hardly any local opposition. Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and towns, and it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities. [30], Aside from paying a tribute, all male Filipinos as well as Chinese immigrants from 16 to 60 years old were obliged to render forced labor called “polo”. In 1646, a series of five naval actions known as the Battles of La Naval de Manila was fought between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, as part of the Eighty Years' War. Languages 2. One could probably draw comparisons to Ancient Greece with its various city-states, though the truth is a bit more complicated than that. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. Art In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. [45][page needed], While the revolution spread throughout the provinces, Aguinaldo's Katipuneros declared the existence of an insurgent government in October regardless of Bonifacio's Katipunan,[46] which he had already converted into an insurgent government with him as president in August. Nevertheless, the British were confident of eventual success after receiving the written surrender of captured Catholic Archbishop Rojo on October 30, 1762. According to a column by Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo, the earliest record of Philippine tattoo art can be seen in the Boxer Codex – a Spanish manuscript written in 1950. 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